Yates Brotherton McCall Cashion Alex Little Richard Sigmon Graham Goodrum Edna Arwell Harwell, Jr. John Baxter Ford Mathew James Hobbs Ottie Robinson Robinson Kirby Dellinger Emma Sherrill Brotherton Jessie Duckworth Helms, Sr. Monroe Howard Barkley Elma Little John T. Hobbs Joyce Swanzey Glen Ballard Jack Beatty Mundy Roger Sigmon Sigmon Ballard White Buff Paul H. Reynolds Jones Horace W.
Jetton Dellinger Harold Sherrill Jacob Michael Houser Lee Killiam Henkel Hallman Frank Howard Loy Howard Grace Smith Key Howard Minnie R. Keever 32 John R. Asbury Flake McConnell Cecil M. McConnell Lee Cherry Neal Sifford Edwards James Barker Ethel Howard Clyde Smith, Jr. Zeta Thompson Howard Finger, Jr. Cordie Sherrill Daisy Brotherton Lyle Edwards Ernest Newton Joyce Howard Keith Goodson Thomas Primm Bob Mundy James Brotherton Don Cherry Barker Shelton Lucky Robert Howard Robert W.
Cline Irvin Sherrill Gabriel J. Hucks Aiken Yates K. Wilkinson, Sr.
Dorothy Howard Morrison Harold Howard Perry T. Nixon Hoke Lucille Goodson Edger McCloud Caldwell Proctor Lester Little Turbyfill Jack Little Lineberger Holdsclaw Primm Frank Cherry, Sr. Coley Howard Richard Howard Seab Howard Rona Mae Bost McGee Henry M. Sherrill 33 Joe Ross Avery Black Doyle P. Gilliland Beulah A. Pryor Everette Caldwell Joan E. Hunsucker Ivey D. Brawley Alvin Gilliland Ivey Cheny John H. Harris, Jr. Harold Cherry George M Hoyle Edna Lowe Nantz Halley Blythe Alex Mundy Albert F. Hager Maurile Crouse Ida Broadway Albert Lynch Black Glenn E.
Hicks Lois Beam Kemp Dellinger Joe Shuford Aileen Broadwell George Michael Hugh Sherrill David Stroud Cordie Hill Francis Sherrill Carpenter William Little Baxter Lineburger Kemp Finger Abernathy Fannie S. Duckworth Kenneth Lawing Catherine Miller Long Mary Watson, Hager Mrs. Ella Gardner Josie Duckworth Roy Lee Abernathy Ed Hager Morris Hager Harold Perkins Query Goodson Ned Nantz Link Mcintosh 34 Campmeetin' Time "Being at a campmeeting was like standing at the gate of heaven and seeing it opened before you," Frances Trollope The Domestic Man- ners of the Americans, In the bend of the turn huddles Rock Spring Campmeeting Grounds, a quadrangle of more than shacks with an open-sided arbor in the center.
The shacks stand in rows like weathered chicken houses with low shed roofs, leaning on one another to share an interior wall. The outside walls are slatted, letting horizontal bars of light stream through. Tin roofs wink back at the sun. Porch swings have been carefully battened down, but doors stand ajar, exposing empty interiors. The unpaved quadrangle wears a look of abandonment.
A few tire tracks crease the hard red clay and a broken ball bat lies under an oak. There are no fences or gates, no signs to indicate a name or purpose. Yet for the past century and a half, Rock Spring Campground has exerted sufficient force in religious tradition to merit listing in the National Registration of Historic Places.
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For in August the quadrangle springs alive for one full week with the vitality of a state fair, the vigor of a pep rally. These partici- pants come from as far away as Texas and California in a spirit of cama- raderie and varying degrees of religious zeal for the week of concen- trated preaching, singing and visiting. On Big Sunday, the final day, the throng swells to 15, or more ground-sitting worshippers the arbor seats about It has operated in its present location since , having missed only two sessions once during the Civil War, the other during the polio epi- demic of The present arbor was built in , and two of the tents predate it.
There seems little doubt as to its continuation. On Halloween Eve a fire blazed through the grounds, leveling 92 of the tents. Within a year, 72 tents had been rebuilt; the other 20 rose early the following year. Space is being cleared for another row of tents and the waiting list grows.
The American campmeeting had its beginning during the Great Revival, a period of deep religious fervor spanning the years between the American Revolution and the Civil War. It was a period of illiteracy for the masses. As the frontier moved westward, cultural and spiritual refinements were left behind. Pioneers, faced with a brute struggle for survival, lived by emotions - drinking, brawling, debauching, fighting.
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The Sabbath was profaned. There were few churches and meetinghouses on the frontier. Except for militia drills, cabin raisings and corn cuttings, there was little social- izing or contact with persons outside the family. Against this background of raw frontier the campmeeting came to life. Generally it was spawned by the circuit rider, an itinerant horse- back preacher-man who braved the elements to carry the gospel to the outer reaches.
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He was a hearty sort, fired with enough zeal to overcome ague wood fever and endure a saddlebag existence. He was a true forest evangel, sleeping in the woods, fording streams, feeding on jerky dried strips of beef or venison and whatever handouts the cabin dwellers could afford.
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He searched out homesteads and knocked on doors. When word spread that the circuit rider was at a particular cabin he 36 left posters on trees, told homesteaders en route folks would flock from miles around. If the crowd was large enough he preached outdoors, un- der the trees. As the group expanded, brush arbors leaves, branches and pine boughs suspended from tripods were quickly raised.
Those travel- ing long distances spent the night, sleeping on straw in their wagons or on the ground beside their horses. Eventually they brought provisions, pitched tents and lengthened their stay to days. Permanent wooden arbors, always open-sided to sat- isfy the love of nature, replaced the brush shelter - and a socio-religious institution was born! Because there were scant records, it is difficult to affix a date or loca- tion for most campgrounds.
Some historians, however, discount this since the outdoor sessions were initiated only because the church was still under construction. But Rev. Daniel Asbury, the Meth- odist minister who conducted the Rehoboth meetings, was so exhila- rated by its success that he continued encampments both at Rehoboth and nearby locations the following year, assisted by his Presbyterian co- worker James Hall.
Campmeetings are known to have taken place before the turn of the century in scattered sections of Tennessee and Kentucky, with evan- gelists John and William McGee, James McGready and others in promi- nence as camp leaders. In , Bishop Francis Asbury relation to Rev. Daniel Asbury is undetermined of the Methodist Church wrote circuit rider Jacob Gruber that "campmeetings were held in practically every state of the Republic. The tradition cannot be attributed to one religious denomination, 37 although the Methodist Episcopal Church seems to have been the fore- runner and principal adherent.
Campmeetings generally were nonde- nominational and still are. Encampments were laid out in clearings near springs in a circular, rectangular or horseshoe fashion, with an arbor in the center. Tents of cotton or sailcloth, and sometimes old quilts or sheets sewn together, were pitched. Straw and hay were often spread on the ground for floor- ing. The main features were the pulpit at one or both ends of the arbor, usually on a raised platform, and a "mourner's bench" near the pulpit where the penitents could sit and ponder their trespasses.
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Logs or planks resting on tree stumps served as seats. The seats were backless, an early stipulation to discourage napping during lengthy sessions. Women sat on the right and men on the left. Slaves, brought along to cook and tend the livestock, usually occu- pied the same space behind the preacher's rostrum.
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Their crazy-quilt tents added a colorful dimension. Campmeetings usually lasted from three days to a week. Each day began with a horn blast later a bell at 5 a. Some encampments enforced early curfews, demanding that all be bedded and candles doused by 10 o'clock or earlier. Others, particularly when a fiery evangelist was in charge, extended preaching till dawn.
The success of an encampment was determined by the number of converts. Thus great dramatic oratory was demanded. The congregation was first lulled into a penitent state by hymn singing. The preacher "lined a hymn" by reading two lines, then the congregation sang them back.